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Conducted immunity testing is a major requirement to attain CE marking for products. Magnetic pulse field strengths conforming to EN/IEC 61000-4-8 and EN/IEC 61000-4-9 are the most common EMI magnetic test. The EMC Shop stocks magnetic field generation equipment for compliance and pre-compliance testing. Rent or buy magnetic field generators for individual tests or multifunction generators to complete an assortment of tests in a compact solution. Most systems can be easily upgraded to include additional tests as required.

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With an ability to turn friction into small amounts of electricity, triboelectric generators may one day be used in clothes that turn movement into power, in battery-free brain implants, and a host of other scenarios. Scientists working on cheap and easy versions of these tiny generators have landed upon a design that makes use of store-bought double-sided tape, and which they say can perform on par with more complex versions when it comes to producing electricity.

Led by Gang Wang from the University of Alabama, the scientists have now made inroads on a less complicated version. The researchers' triboelectric generator builds on earlier research that indicated these systems can be made of tape, plastic and metal, but they piece these components together in a way that brings their performance up to that of more complex and expensive versions.

A version of the generator featuring two electrodes was used to produce a power density of 169.6 W per square meter (10.7 sq ft), which the team says is 47% higher than previous designs. In a round of experiments, the team used the generator to light up an array of 400 LEDs by simply pressing on its layers.

Powering LEDs or other small electronics is one possible use case for triboelectric generators, but there are many more. The list includes wooden floors that harvest energy from foot traffic, hearing aids that power themselves, touchscreens that generate electricity when you use them, and forest sensors powered by swaying tree branches. In making one of these generators with the help of store-bought items, the scientists have thrown a simpler, low-cost approach into the mix.

Hi Anthony Jones from Hurricane wind power here and today I wanted to take a few moments and write up a short buying guide for permanent magnet alternators and generators. While we have done a lot of youtube videos on this subject which we will embed at the end of this discussion we recognize that as portion of our audience would rather read an article and do not like video. Therefore I wanted to take a few moments here to clear up some confusion and direct our customers to the best model for their application. We will not be getting into alternator math and deep technical stuff but find it necessary to write a basic guide on how things work for the 1st time customer who has never has experience with a permanent magnet alternator.

As we began discussing in the previous paragraph it is important to note that the voltage is not regulated within the alternator. All of our alternators and for that matter most on the market period are 3 phase wild AC output with all three legs being hot. This is rectified externally in Hurricane units to keep the heat build up in a rectifier from decreasing alternator efficiency. The load on the charging side of the generator is what holds the voltage down. It is important to understand that just because you have a 48 volt application you do not necessarily want to buy a 48 volt alternator for example. All of the alternators have different power output characteristics which are determined mainly by the windings of the particular unit. Therefore in the example where a consumer buys a permanent magnet alternator for an application where it is driven by a motor or other high rpm drive system using a 48 volt alternator is a disadvantage. In this instance using possible a 12 or 24 volt winding which is capable of driving 48 volts at the higher RPM also uses a thicker winding which allows more current to flow. In this example using the formula VOLTS time AMP's = Watts it is easy to understand the power potential increase from changing a winding capable or outputting 40 amps versus 10 in a 48 volt application. In this example 48 x 10 would procude about 480 watts where as the latter would allow the production of closer to 2000. More importantly in this example with the use of a higher horsepower input application the thicker winding provides more current thicker wire to carry the current and less heat build up.

Hurricane is the home of the Cat IV V, White Lightning and Air Boss line of permanent magnet alternators. While we refer to these as their proper names because the produce alternating current we as a matter of semantics do not care if your want to call the permanent magnet generators or permanent magnet motors. We still understand what you are talking about

Permanent magnet direct current (DC) machines can be used as either conventional motors or as DC wind turbine generators as constructionally there is no basic difference between the two. In fact, the same PMDC machine may be driven electrically as a motor to move a mechanical load, or it may be driven mechanically as a simple generator to generate an output voltage. This then makes the permanent magnet DC generator (PMDC generator) ideal for use as a simple wind turbine generator.

Generally with conventional DC machines, the field winding is on the stator and the armature winding is on the rotor. This means that they have output coils that rotate with a stationary magnetic field that produces the required magnetic flux. Electrical power is taken directly from the armature via carbon brushes with the magnetic field, which controls the power, being supplied by either permanent magnets or an electromagnet.

The rotating armature coils pass through this stationary, or static magnetic field which in turn generates an electrical current in the coils. In a permanent magnet DC generator, the armature rotates so the full generated current must pass through a commutator or slip-rings and carbon brushes arrangement providing electrical power at its output terminals as shown.

As a result, the current through the field decreases, reducing the magnetic field and causing voltage to decrease even more and if load current is much higher than the design of the generator, the reduction in output voltage becomes so severe resulting in large internal armature losses and overheating of the generator. As a result, shunt wound DC generators are not normally used for large constant electrical loads.

Likewise, if the connected load draws a large current, the excitation current is also high. Therefore, the magnetic field of the series field winding is very strong, and the generated voltage is high. One main disadvantage of a series wound DC generator is that it has poor voltage regulation, and as a result, series wound DC generators are not normally used for fluctuating loads.

Both Shunt Wound and Series Wound self-excited DC generators have the disadvantage in that changes in load current causes severe changes in generator output voltage due to armature reaction and as a result, these types of DC generators are seldom used as wind turbine generators.

Another way to overcome the disadvantages of a self-excited DC generator is to allow the field windings to be externally connected. This then produces another type of DC generator called a Separately Excited DC Generator.

As the name suggests, a separately excited DC generator is supplied by an independent external DC power source for the field winding. This allows the excitation current to produce a constant magnetic field flux regardless of the load conditions on the armature. With no electrical load connected to the generator, no current flows and only the generators rated voltage appears at the output terminals.

A separately excited DC generator has many applications and can be used in wind turbine generator applications. However, DC generators for wind turbine applications have the disadvantage that a separate direct current power source is needed to excite the shunt field. However, we can overcome this disadvantage by replacing the field winding with permanent magnets, creating a Permanent Magnet DC Generator or PMDC Generator.

The Permanent Magnet DC Generator can be considered as a separately excited DC brushed motor with a constant magnetic flux. In fact, nearly all permanent magnet direct current ( PMDC ) brushed motors can be used as a permanent magnet PMDC generator, but as they are not really designed to be generators, they do not make good wind turbine generators because when working as a simple DC generator, the rotating field acts like a brake slowing down the rotor.

When used as permanent magnet DC generators, PMDC motors generally have to be driven a lot faster than their rated motor speed to produce anything near to their rated motor voltage so high voltage, low rpm DC machines make better DC generators.

The main advantage over other types of DC generator is that the permanent magnet DC generator responds to changes in wind speed very quickly because their strong stator field is always there and constant.

Also, as the stator is provided with a permanent magnet pole system, it is resistant to the effects of possible dirt ingress. However, if not fully sealed, the permanent magnets will attract ferromagnetic dust and metallic swarf (also called turnings or filings) which may cause internal damage.

The permanent magnet DC generator is a good choice for small scale wind turbine systems as they are reliable, can operate at low rotational speeds and provide good efficiency especially in light wind conditions as their cut-in point is fairly low.

The most common type of DC generators for wind turbines and small scale wind turbine systems used to charge batteries is the permanent magnet DC generator, also know as the Dynamo. Dynamos are a good choice for newcomers to wind power as they are large, heavy and generally have very good bearings, so you can mount fairly hefty rotor blades directly onto their pulley shaft. 041b061a72


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