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Otherwise



As the contributors to this collection have found, these liberatorycommitments can (and already do) have palpable and challenging effectswhen smuggled into the space of ethnographic inquiry. Indeed, that isthe point. We are women, femmes, and nonbinary people; Black,Indigenous, people of color, and white accomplices. As junior scholars,we have aligned ourselves with emancipatory, decriminalizing,life-affirming social projects that have unapologetically transformativedemands. For the last four years, we have been asking one another andour co-thinkers on the ground: What kind of anthropology can contributeto this deep and enduring practice of otherwise world building? It isthrough this sustained work that we have learned that we must get closerand work harder than merely glimpsing otherwise politicalpotentialities, lest we become complicit in perpetuating the same formsof colonial violence of sight, surveillance, and voyeurism under andamid that which existing otherwise worlds have fought to persist.Working harder means opening ourselves, as well as our embodied andinstitutionalized ways of doing anthropology, to the possibility ofconversion and to being transformed in the process (Jackson 2005).




Otherwise



In the provocations that follow, diverse in regional focus andcontent, we develop a set of epistemological tools and ethical stancesfor building and doing an Otherwise Anthropology. These texts push us torefuse scholarship that studies violence in ways that rehearse andfurther entrench the norms of racialized terror; they also demand thatwe begin to repair these from the relations of anthropological praxisitself. These texts are attuned to concerns like, What are theethico-methodological principles that ground this OtherwiseAnthropology? What elements and tactics do we use with ourinterlocutors, comrades, and colleagues to not only document what is,but to actively build together what could be? And how does thisskin-in-the-game pursuit transform the discipline? The transformationsof an Otherwise Anthropology are accountable to the needs, demands, andworld-building visions of the otherwise projects to which we areaccountable. Co-thinking necessitates co-authorship, and of texts thatvary in genres beyond the published research manuscript; the siphoningof grant resources into otherwise projects; and the generation of acategory beyond the critical/applied binary that mixes radical theorywith grassroots relevance, and swaps instrumentality for liberation. Wewrite for many reasons: to make sense, to document, to write somethingmore into being. What would happen if we were up front with each otherand our institutions about these relations and stakes, and worked fromthis intimate space of involvement?


In January 2016, the Office of Chief Counsel issued Chief Counsel Advice (CCA) 201615013 that deals with the treatment of otherwise excludable employees for coverage and ADP testing. This Snapshot discusses plan testing methods that are permissible pursuant to CCA 201615013.


The advice memorandum discusses an acceptable method of identifying the group of otherwise excludable employees, and identifies two additional methods that may also be acceptable. This Snapshot provides examples of plan testing methods described in the advice memorandum.


Treas. Reg. Section 1.410(b)-6(b)(3) provides that an employer may treat a plan benefitting otherwise excludable employees as two plans, one for the otherwise excludable employees and one for the other employees benefitting under the plan.


As noted above, a plan will use special testing rules for otherwise excludable employees when it cannot otherwise satisfy the coverage requirements in IRC Section 410 and/or the ADP test in IRC Section 401(k) by taking into account all of the participants in the plan. See IRC Sections 401(k)(3)(F) and 410(b)(4)(B), and Treas. Reg. Section 1.410(b)-7(c)(3). Plan language is required to perform this testing methodology. See Treas. Reg. Section 1.401(k)-1(e)(7). Also, although not the subject of this Snapshot, a plan can also perform the Actual Contribution Percentage (ACP) test using the special testing rules for otherwise excludable employees. See IRC Section 401(m)(5)(C) and Treas. Reg. Section 1.401(m)-1(b)(4)(iv).


In recent years, the concept of the otherwisehas been tracking across anthropology to frame political potentialities that are emerging, often drawing on phenomenological and continental theoretical lineages. However, in other fields, especially those founded in social movements, such as Black, Indigenous, Latinx, Asian American, postcolonial, queer, and gender studies, the otherwise has been understood to enjoin scholars to an enduring struggle for liberation. Within these fields, the otherwise summons the forms of life that have persisted despite constant and lethal surveillance; it brings forth the possibility for, even the necessity of, abolishing the current order and radically transforming our worlds. These liberatory commitments can (and already do) have palpable and challenging effects when smuggled into the space of ethnographic inquiry. Indeed, that is the point. The contributors to this collection are women, femmes, and nonbinary people; Black, Indigenous, people of color, and white accomplices. As junior scholars, we have aligned ourselves with emancipatory, decriminalizing, life-affirming social projects that have unapologetically transformative demands. For the last four years, we have been asking one another and our co-thinkers on the ground: What kind of anthropology can contribute to this deep and enduring practice of otherwise world building? Together, we call for a move from the anthropological study of the otherwise to an Otherwise Anthropology.


BD, bipolar disorder; PNOS, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified; SZ, schizophrenia spectrum disorder; GAF, Global Assessment of functioning; PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; DUDIT, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test.


No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, as defined in section 705 (20) of this title, shall, solely by reason of his or her disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by any Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service. The head of each such agency shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the amendments to this section made by the Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Development Disabilities Act of 1978. Copies of any proposed regulations shall be submitted to appropriate authorizing committees of the Congress, and such regulation may take effect no earlier than the thirtieth day after the date of which such regulation is so submitted to such committees. See also 29 CFR Part 32 and 29 CFR Part 37.


The figuration of marching as nothing begs critical attention. And this is because we are a people that have been thought to be nothing. We are the tradition of the ain't nothin but. We learn what emerges from those that are called nothing while also critiquing the very concept of nothingness. To come from nothing, to be and speak nothing, as the foundation for liberation is what we need, or at least what we have. This movement is the enactment of an otherwise strategy, an otherwise plan. And this otherwise strategy and plan cannot be owned. It can only be shared.


Ferguson was a no-place, a nothingness we didn't need to think, or think about until the irruption of August 9. This necessity to think Ferguson as a space from where critical thought emerges is the force of the otherwise. This shift, where knowledge of injustice emerges from Ferguson rather than New York or Los Angeles, is about the choreographies of justice work. With Ferguson, the sense of history is disrupted by the sensual difference between color and grayscale imaging. This image, once colorful, once grayed out, is an instance of the ain't nothin but of black social dance. Our sense of time, our understanding of temporal movement, relies heavily on our relation to aesthetics, to what we sense. And the desires for strategy, for rigorous philosophizing, is the same epistemic horizon as that which we seek to destroy. Yet this otherwise than strategy is sight, sound, touch, taste, smell working together in varied degrees based on the abilities given to each of us as gift to perceive the worlds we inhabit.


An otherwise working day is a day that an employee would have been working had the day not been a public holiday, sick leave, bereavement leave, annual holiday or alternative holiday for that employee.


Patients with an apparent complete absence of type I IFN immunity (IFNAR1, IFNAR2) or of ISGF-3 (STAT2, IRF9) are prone to adverse reactions to live attenuated viral vaccines, such as yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) and the measles, mumps, and rubella virus (MMR) vaccine, and are also susceptible to HSV-1, encephalitis, and critical influenza or COVID-19 pneumonia (Abolhassani et al., 2022; Alosaimi et al., 2019; Bastard et al., 2021; Bastard et al., 2022; Duncan et al., 2015; Duncan et al., 2022; Hambleton et al., 2013; Hernandez et al., 2019; Hernandez et al., 2018; Moens et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2020). The clinical penetrance of such infections in patients with type I IFN deficiencies remains unclear. These patients seem to be otherwise normally resistant to a number of common viruses. By contrast, AR complete and partial STAT1-deficient patients, with impairments of both ISGF-3 and γ-activated factor and, thus, unresponsive to type I, II, and III IFNs, are prone to various viral and intramacrophagic infections, resulting in early-onset disease following a devastating course (Boehmer et al., 2020; Burns et al., 2016; Chapgier et al., 2006; Dupuis et al., 2003; Le Voyer et al., 2021; Sakata et al., 2020; Vairo et al., 2011). 041b061a72


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